Uncoated vs. Pre-Lubricated vs. Hydrophilic Catheters: Which Is the Right Choice For You?

If you’ve been living with urinary retention or neurogenic incontinence, your doctor has probably prescribed the use of an intermittent catheter to empty your bladder. Lubricating the catheter prior to insertion is the key to minimizing discomfort while self-cathing.

Patients nowadays have three primary options: uncoated, pre-lubricated, or hydrophilic catheters. What are the differences, and how do you know which is the right choice for you?

Uncoated Catheters

Uncoated intermittent catheters are the standard and most common you’ll find. These allow you to lubricate the catheter yourself so that you can better control the amount that’s applied. A sterile lubricant like Surgilube is a common recommendation our Treatment Specialists make.

Pre-Lubricated Catheters

Pre-lubricated catheters are covered in a gel-like, sterile lubricant. They are single-use and ready to go right out of the packaging. Here at RA Fischer, we carry the Cure Ultra catheter, which is coated in a “no drip” lubricant.

Another design benefit of the Cure Ultra catheter is the no-roll funnel. This allows you to place your catheter down on a flat sterile surface – such as an underpad (included in our Home Kits) – without it rolling off. The texture of the Cure Ultra funnel as well as the texture of the gripper sleeve works well even if you deal with dexterity issues in your hands.

Hydrophilic Catheters

Hydrophilic catheters feature a proprietary coating that reacts to water, self-lubricating the catheter within the unopened packaging. The catheter remains lubricated throughout the self-cathing experience.

There are two types of hydrophilic catheters:

  • Packet Breaking. Simply fold the packaging to break a packet of the sterile solution, coating the catheter. Just wait 30 seconds for the lubrication to be fully activated.
  • No Packet Breaking. The solution is already inside the packaging, meaning the catheter lubrication is already activated. No need to break the packet and wait 30 seconds before the catheter is ready to use.

Examples of no-packet-breaking, ready-to-use catheters are the GentleCath or Cure Twist. They can be covered by your insurance or ordered online with a monthly subscription.

The Most Important Differences

With uncoated catheters, there is no sterile water or saline solbeforeution. The lubricant is purchased individually and is more of a gel, so it won’t drip. Lubrication is key because when a catheter is inserted, it can cause micro-trauma to the urethral tissues if improperly coated. This not only feels uncomfortable, but it also increases the risks of developing a UTI (urinary tract infection).

Pre-lubricated and hydrophilic catheters are both quick to open and easy to insert. The main advantage a pre-lubricated catheter like the Cure Ultra has is the “no-drip and less-mess” experience. Remember: you’re not always going to be self-catheterizing at home, so a self-cathing solution that’s easy to use is an important thing to consider.

If you’re self-cathing more than once a day, we recommend talking to your doctor or one of our Treatment Specialists about switching to a pre-lubricated or hydrophilic catheter.

Sampling Different Types of Catheters

Choosing the right catheter is in the details, some of which are tangible. No roll funnels, easy-hold grippers, no-drip lubricant – experience the differences for yourself by ordering free samples through your personal Treatment Specialist. Together you can make the best decision and establish a delivery schedule, so you never have to worry about your supplies or support ever again!



Intermittent vs. Indwelling vs. External Catheters: Which Is Right for You?

Catheters are used to manage urinary retention and incontinence by emptying the bladder. The exact type of catheter – intermittent vs. indwelling vs. external – will depend upon the underlying bladder condition, the goals of treatment, and gender appropriateness.

Complications such as recurring UTIs (urinary tract infections) and sepsis have been directly linked to the length of time a catheter is inserted. So when it comes to the different types of catheter applications, how do you know which is right for you?

Intermittent Catheters

Intermittent catheters are inserted into the bladder via the urethra. They have proven to be the most effective and practical means of emptying the bladder for patients over the last several decades.

Indwelling Catheters

Indwelling catheters, sometimes referred to as “Foleys,” are closed drainage systems held in the bladder with a retention balloon. These catheters are used to relieve long-term urinary retention. The system includes soft, flexible tubes that have double lumens: one for urine drainage and the other for inflating/deflating the retention balloon.

External Catheters

External catheters are condom-like sheaths applied over the penis and connected to a drainage bag. They are primarily used by men who experience urinary incontinence. The most popular external catheters are disposable and need to be changed every 24-48 hours. They can be washed and reused, but are not as durable as other self-cathing solutions.

Sampling Different Types of Catheters

Don’t settle for the same catheter you were prescribed day one. Pre-lubricated, hydrophilic, easy-hold grippers – experience the modern advancements in today’s catheters for yourself! Start by ordering free samples through your Treatment Specialist. Together you can make the best decision and establish a delivery schedule!

With RA Fischer, you’ll never wonder if your supplies will be on time, or whom you can reach out to for support.

The Process of Scheduling a Telehealth Consultation

Today, more patients are gravitating toward telehealth solutions for their reliability, convenience, and affordability. You no longer have to wait weeks or months to see a specialist. Online questionnaires, photo submissions, and video chats with experienced professionals allow patients to be seen the same day from their own homes.

If you need to speak to a professional about your hyperhidrosis, urological needs, mental health, or just general well-being, what does the process of scheduling a telehealth consultation look like?

For General Health

Our partners at CallonDoc have served over half-a-million patients. Their 100% online, flat-fee consultation has simplified the telehealth experience for all patients. Whether it’s excessive sweating, mental health, or chronic health issues, CallonDoc can pair you with the appropriate professional to get you the answers you need.

  • Complete a 5-minute online questionnaire that is submitted to a licensed medical provider for review. If applicable, a phone call, text, or video chat may be needed.
  • Once completed, the prescription is sent directly to the provider, or pharmacy, or delivered to your doorstep.
  • Order and receive the equipment or supplies you need

CallonDoc’s consultations are available on the same day, 7 days a week!

Save $10 with code HYPERHIDROSIS thru 12/01/22

For Urology

While many aspects of urology require a traditional hands-on examination, the field is perfectly suited for telehealth. Today, adult and pediatric patients alike rely on teleurologists for online consultations.

In some cases, your initial online consultation might precede a hands-on exam, allowing your doctor to review your symptoms and medical history before prescribing a solution. Other urologic conditions, on the other hand, can be diagnosed and treated entirely online.

A telehealth appointment with a urologist may be appropriate in the following situations:

  • Diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs) due to straight-tip catheter use
  • Monitoring of lab results for urinary retention due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (enlarged prostate)
  • Post-treatment monitoring of Peyronie’s disease (PD)
  • Monitoring of vesicoureteral reflux (urinary reflux) in infants and children
  • Follow-up consultation for prostatitis (prostate inflammation)
  • Preoperative and postoperative consultations for bladder, kidney, or prostate cancer

For Dermatology

SkyMD is a dermatology-focused telehealth provider. Their group of board-certified tele-dermatologists evaluates, diagnoses, and prescribes solutions for dozens of skin conditions, from hyperhidrosis to psoriasis.

  • To start a new consultation, take a photo of the affected area(s) and upload it to the SkyMD portal
  • Enter some basic information, such as how long your symptoms have persisted and what prescriptions you’re currently using or have been prescribed in the past
  • A dermatologist contacts you regarding your evaluation and treatment plan
  • Chat back and forth with the dermatologist in real time until all your questions have been answered

While telehealth may have once been seen as a short-term solution to alleviate the burden of COVID-19 on hospitals, today it is revolutionizing the patient experience. It may not be a complete substitution for personal attention (that’s where our Treatment Specialists here come in), but if you’re experiencing long wait times at your local doctor, don’t hesitate to schedule a telehealth consultation!

Why Previous Attempts at Iontophoresis May Not Have Worked

Iontophoresis relies on a mild electrical current to deliver the natural minerals found in tap water to affected sweat glands as well as along the conduction system. After several sessions, this ion current has been clinically proven to reduce perspiration without damaging the sweat glands. However, not all patients have this experience at first.

Whether you had previously tried and failed treatments for hyperhidrosis or saw diminished effectiveness over time, here is why previous attempts at iontophoresis may not have worked for you.

Soft Water

During iontophoresis, tap water serves as an electrically conductive medium between the electrodes and your skin. Minerals like calcium, magnesium, and potassium are delivered into the skin, essentially “plugging them up” to create an all-natural dryness barrier. However, some houses have water-softening systems that filter out these necessary minerals. Or you may find yourself in an area of the country where the well water is naturally soft.

Soft water may have been why iontophoresis didn’t work for you in the past.

Fix: Adding baking soda, using an exterior water source like a hose, or buying mineral water from the store.

Metal Electrodes

Traditionally, aluminum or stainless-steel electrodes were added to basins filled with tap water. But because metal is a corrosive material, these electrodes would become discolored, pitted, and lose effectiveness throughout treatments. Corrosion impedes the current because it prefers to flow through the path of least resistance. Having coverage across your entire skin’s surface area ensures better, more consistent results.

Corroded metal electrodes may have been why iontophoresis didn’t work for you in the past.

Fix: Metal-free, silicone-graphite electrodes.

The Wrong Current

During iontophoresis, the current is applied as either a constant Direct Current or Pulsed Current. These two current types differ in their therapeutic effectiveness and perceived sensation. Dermatologists consider direct current more effective because the application is constant and consistent. With Direct Current, patients experience faster results.

“For a person suffering from excessive sweating, direct current is the only choice,” says Dr. Rolf Eilers of Saalmann Medical.

Pulsed current is perceived as being a more comfortable experience because you can tolerate higher current levels. Due to the inconsistent flow of Pulsed Current, the therapeutic dose (or milliamperes) cannot compare with that of Direct Current. Pulsed current is more frequently applied for those with sensitivity issues or pediatric patients.

Imagine two rooms. In one, you turn the lights on, wait for 20 minutes, and then turn them off. That’s Direct Current. In room #2, the light bulbs are brighter, but you can’t tolerate that much brightness, so you keep flickering the lights on and off for twenty minutes. That’s Pulsed Current.

While both current types have their own use, treating with the wrong one may have been why iontophoresis didn’t work for you in the past.

Fix: An iontophoresis device like The Fischer that features both Direct Current and Pulsed Current settings, giving you the flexibility to treat for faster results or a more comfortable experience.

Not Treating for Long Enough

At RA Fischer, our Treatment Specialists recommend that patients begin iontophoresis treatments at 20-minutes per area. During the initial phase of our 3-phased treatment approach, the goal is to reduce sweat within the first two weeks with an every-other-day session.

Following this initial phase, a gradual reduction in sessions – from 3x a week to 1-2 sessions per week, and so on – is required to maintain therapeutic success. For patients with palmar and plantar hyperhidrosis, this is when you can transition to treating both hands and both feet at the same time, effectively reducing the treatment time in half.

Once you’ve achieved 100% consistent dryness, you’ve reached the maintenance phase of iontophoresis and can now treat on an “as needed” basis. Some patients can go 4-6 weeks in between 20-minute sessions.

Not treating for long enough, or following the wrong treatment plan, may have been why iontophoresis didn’t work for you in the past.

Fix: Following our treatment plan or speaking to one of our Treatment Specialists with specific questions about your symptoms and experience.


How To Use The Fischer: Underarms

The Fischer: Underarms is a modern, metal-free iontophoresis device. Silicone-graphite electrodes with soft sponge pad inserts deliver a better, faster, and safer experience for axillary hyperhidrosis patients. Soft-touch and designed to contour to your underarms, these state-of-the-art underarm attachments ensure treatment is delivered consistently across your skin’s surface area. This how to article reviews setup and treatment:


  1. First, clean your underarms by removing ointments, creams, and/or cosmetics.
  2. Soak the sponge pad sleeves in tap water, but don’t wring them out! The wetter the better as this helps ensure current flow.
  3. Take each of the axillary electrodes and insert them into the sponge pad sleeves. Make sure they are completely pushed in.
  4. Plug The Fischer control unit into the wall and power it on.
  5. Plug the axillary electrode cables into the connectors E1 and E2 located at the back of the control unit.
  6. Set treatment timer to 15-20 minutes
  7. Set power level. It’s important to treat at a level that’s comfortable for you. Most patients begin low at 1-3 mA and gradually increase over time.
  8. You’re now ready to begin treatment. Insert an attachment (sponge pad sleeve + electrode) under each arm, with the connector cables pointing to the front. Keep them in place by applying slight pressure with your arms.
  9. After your treatment timer reaches zero and you hear the beep, remove the attachments from under your arms.
  10. Power The Fischer off, because you’re finished!


Please refer to The Fischer instruction manual for full details on setup and treatment. Questions? Contact our Treatment Specialists today!


How To Use The Fischer: Hands & Feet

The Fischer is a modern, metal-free iontophoresis device for treating palmar and plantar hyperhidrosis, aka excessively sweaty hands and feet. This how to article reviews setup and treatment:


  1. Plug the main control unit into the wall and turn it on.
  2. Place the water bath trays on a level surface.
  3. Connect an electrode cable to each electrode.
  4. Plug electrode cords into connectors E1 and E2 at the back panel of the main control unit.
  5. Place an electrode into each water bath tray. Although it doesn’t matter which electrode goes where, for ease of use, place the electrode plugged into E1 in the left water bath tray and the electrode plugged into E2 in the right water bath tray.
  6. Cover each electrode with a blue foam insert.
  7. Fill both water bath trays with tap water (approx. 2-5 cups) so that the foam mats are damp. A good sign that you’ve added the right amount of water: the palms of your hands and/or soles of your feet are completely wet and the outsides of your fingers and/or toes are partially covered. Unless you suffer from sweating on the tops of your hands and/or feet, refrain from submerging your entire hand/foot in water.
  8. Set the treatment timer.
  9. Set your power level.
  10. Set the current to Direct Current
  11. Set the polarity switch to Auto
  12. Place both hands/feet into the water bath trays
  13. On the main control unit, you’ll notice the Active Treatment Display (ATD) light up with two bars. These display in real-time that the treatment is working and when you’ve reached the preset power level.
  14. Treat for 15-20 minutes per session. Once the timer reaches zero, wait for the beep.
  15. Remove your hands and feet.
  16. Turn off The Fischer, because your treatment is finished!

Please refer to The Fischer instruction manual for full details on setup and treatment. Questions? Contact our Treatment Specialists today!

At-Home Hyperhidrosis Solutions During Coronavirus Social Distancing

The coronavirus has hyperhidrosis patients looking for sustainable, at-home solutions. Botox treatment offices are closing. Supply chains for medications are being disrupted. Where can patients turn?

Iontophoresis is the ideal at-home solution for patients struggling with sweaty hands, feet, and/or underarms during social distancing.


Medical Office Closures

Some hyperhidrosis patients rely on regular Botox injections to manage their sweat symptoms. With doctor’s offices across the United States closing due to the coronavirus, patients are now scrambling for alternative options.

Botox is most commonly used to treat severe underarm sweating. But did you know that iontophoresis devices come with special attachments that can be used to treat the underarms? Even better: the treatment is all-natural, compared to the possible side-effects associated with getting Botox injections.


City & County-Wide Quarantines

What happens if you’re asked not to leave your home except for necessities? Relying on prescription wipes and medications adds stress to an already stressful situation. Whether it’s supply chain disruptions resulting in delayed deliveries, or impossibly-long lines at the pharmacy, hyperhidrosis patients may soon be forced to rely on at-home alternatives.

Iontophoresis devices plug right into your wall. The science uses a mild electric current to deliver the natural minerals found in tap water into your sweat pores, “plugging them up” to create a long-lasting dryness barrier. Most patients treat once every 3-4 weeks for only 20-minutes as part of an ongoing maintenance schedule.

At the end of the day, iontophoresis gives hyperhidrosis patients peace of mind that everything they need to fight sweat is already in their possession.


Utilizing Downtime

Now that you’re staying safe by social distancing, you have more free time on your hands! Well, that is unless you have kids to home-school for the foreseeable future. Luckily, our Treatment Specialists can look into your insurance benefits and eligibility on your behalf. Ask yourself:

  • Have you switched insurance providers?
  • Have you met your deductible this year?
  • Are you seeing a new Primary Care Physician?

Now’s the time to re-evaluate your hyperhidrosis coverage options.

Last Things To Remember

While some hyperhidrosis patients may be relishing in the fact that no one’s shaking hands these days, others are still living with the stigma of heavy sweating. Hyperhidrosis is a common and treatable medical condition and nothing to be embarrassed about.

If you or someone you know is still struggling with sweat, remember:

  • It’s common. Excessive sweating is something millions of people struggle with, so just know you’re not alone.
  • It’s misunderstood. It’s not anxiety or “just clammy hands.” Hyperhidrosis can seriously affect one’s confidence and even career.
  • It’s treatable. Iontophoresis is 91% effective for treating overly-sweaty hands, feet, and underarms.

RA Fischer’s iontophoresis device is FDA-Cleared and covered by select insurance plans. We even file prior-authorization requests. Our Treatment Specialists are working remotely during the coronavirus pandemic and are still available to answer your questions. Contact us or give us a call at (800) 525-3467.

Should You Add Anything To The Water During Iontophoresis?

Iontophoresis devices like The Fischer use an electric current to deliver the minerals naturally found in tap water into your sweat pores, plugging them up to create a long-lasting dryness barrier. However, tap water in certain areas may lack the mineral concentration for the treatment to have an effect. These are referred to as “soft” water geographic locations.

Under the direction of a physician or dermatologist, some patients have added prescription medications or baking soda to the bath trays to see better results. This article answers the question: should you add anything to the water during iontophoresis?

Adding Prescription Medications

Today, there are a number of prescription medications available to hyperhidrosis patients. While these medications often come with their own challenges and side-effects, using them in combination with iontophoresis has yielded results.

We went to the U.S. National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health and found this study they published online:


“To determine the comparative efficacy of tap water iontophoresis to iontophoresis with the anticholinergic glycopyrrolate, we undertook a single-blinded right-left comparison study in 20 patients with palmoplantar hyperhidrosis. Most patients had their palms treated and one patient had the soles treated. We compared the duration of symptom relief following iontophoresis with glycopyrrolate unilaterally to iontophoresis with glycopyrrolate bilaterally.”


“Following treatment with unilateral tap water iontophoresis, unilateral glycopyrrolate and bilateral glycopyrrolate, patients reported hand dryness for a median of 3, 5 and 11 days, respectively. We conclude that glycopyrrolate iontophoresis is more effective than tap water iontophoresis in the treatment of palmoplantar hyperhidrosis and that glycopyrrolate iontophoresis has both local and systemic effects on perspiration.”


Adding Baking Soda

Adding a teaspoon of baking soda to each water bath tray during iontophoresis can also help compensate for “soft” tap water. Baking soda not only helps increase capillary flow, but it also regulates the pH level of the water to ensure that the proper milliamperes are achieved.

“If the mineral content of tap water is low, insufficient current flow may occur. This situation can be corrected by adding 5 g (1 teaspoon) of baking soda to each tray,” writes Dr. David M. Pariser in Hyperhidrosis: An Issue of Dermatologic Clinics.


So Should You Add Anything To Your Water?

Unless you live in a “soft” water area, the naturally-occurring minerals in tap water should be sufficient for hyperhidrosis patients to see a noticeable reduction in sweating after 2-weeks of treatment. Most patients start iontophoresis every-other-day for 20-minutes until dryness is achieved, and then slowly reduce the frequency, settling into what we call a “maintenance schedule.” Everyone’s body reacts differently to the treatment, but on average patients use our devices once every 3-4 weeks to maintain dryness.

If you’re still not satisfied with your progress or results after 2-weeks of iontophoresis treatments, that’s when you want to talk to your doctor about adding a prescription medication or baking soda to the water.

TIP: Not sure if you live in a “soft” water area? Check out this map courtesy of Hyrdo-Flow USA.

If you or someone you know is struggling with excessive sweating from hyperhidrosis, give our Treatment Specialists a call at (800) 525-3467. Or, fill out this form and we can look into your insurance benefits and eligibility.

Direct vs. Pulsed Current Iontophoresis: Comparison Breakdown

What’s the better choice for iontophoresis: Direct or Pulsed Current? We get this question a lot from hyperhidrosis patients.

Direct Current

Direct current (DC) is an electric current that is one-directional, meaning the flow of the charge is always in the same direction. Positive to positive, negative to negative.

  • A continuous flow of charged particles lasting at least 1 second
  • One electrode is always the anode (positive) and one is always the cathode (negative)
  • With the current moving in one direction, there is a build-up of charge causing a stronger chemical effect on your skin tissue

For these reasons, direct current iontophoresis is considered to be more effective and its application results in quicker therapeutic results.

Pulsed Current

Pulsed current is also one-directional, but the intensity changes in value over the course of treatment. It’s perceived as being more comfortable because users can tolerate higher current values.

  • The flow of charged particles stops for less than 1 second in between cycles
  • Pulses can occur individually or in a series

Pulsed current iontophoresis is not as effective because the patient is only receiving a small portion of the treatment at the maximum value.


Put it this way: what’s the more effective way of driving down the highway? Slowly accelerating to 65 mph and keeping a steady speed until you reach your destination? Or accelerating to 100 mph, then decelerating down to 0, then re-accelerating back up to 65, all the way down the highway?

The Fischer

The Fischer iontophoresis device features both DC and PC options. This allows patients to treat according to their preference – whether they’re looking for faster results or a more comfortable experience.

  • PC is great for younger patients or patients with extreme skin sensitivities 
  • Start with DC to see results faster, then switch to PC for your maintenance schedule
  • Traditional iontophoresis companies offer either DC or PC machines. The Fischer is the only two-in-one DC & PC machine.

Completing The Iontophoresis Circuit

Iontophoresis requires an electric current and regular tap water. Two extremities (your hands, for instance) come into contact simultaneously with the electrodes (metal plates) so that ions can flow into your tissue. The positively charged ions which are naturally found in tap water migrate to the negative electrode, while the negatively charged ions migrate to the positive electrode.


Put it this way: if your skin was a sponge, the electric current pushes the minerals found in tap water into your sweat pores, “plugging them up” to create an all-natural dryness barrier.

Are you or someone you know struggling with hyperhidrosis? Give our Treatment Specialists a call at (800) 525-3467, or fill out this form to discuss your symptoms and insurance eligibility.


Traveling With Your Iontophoresis Machine (Do You Need An Adapter?)

When you live with hyperhidrosis, just about everything becomes more stressful – including traveling. Not only do you have to worry about currency exchange rates and foreign languages, but you also have to worry about different plug shapes, voltages, and frequencies if you plan on using your iontophoresis machine.

If you didn’t read this article ahead of time, you’d be unable to use your MD-1 or MD-2 on your next vacation or work excursion. Even worse, you’d risk damaging your iontophoresis machine by plugging it into an improper outlet.

Here’s everything you need to know before traveling with your iontophoresis machine:


Outlets & Plug Shapes

The most obvious issue is that different countries have different electrical socket shape. To start, you’ll need the appropriate plug shape (or an adapter you can purchase off Amazon) for the country you’ll be visiting.

Voltages & Frequencies

Different countries also use different electrical voltages and frequencies. Even if you’ve purchased an adapter, you must also take into account the voltage. Plugging your iontophoresis machine into an improper outlet may damage it.

TIP: Over 30 countries (including the U.S.) use 110V~130V, while 120 other countries (including most of the UK) use 220V~230V.

Converting Volts

If your iontophoresis device isn’t rated to work with the voltages in the country you’re visiting, you’ll need a “voltage converter.” You can find single-outlet converters relatively cheap online.

TIP: Not all surge protectors are voltage converters, so read closely before buying the wrong one.

Travel Chart

The below chart details the varying plug and voltage combinations by country. North American power outlets provide 120 volts at 60 Hz. Outlets in Europe provide 230 volts at 50 Hz. Be sure to consult your Treatment Specialist if you have any questions!

Country / state / territorySingle-phase voltage (volts)Frequency (hertz)Plug type
Abu Dhabi (not a country, but capital of the United Arab Emirates)230 V50 HzG
Afghanistan220 V50 HzC / F
Albania230 V50 HzC / F
Algeria230 V50 HzC / F
American Samoa120 V60 HzA / B / F / I
Andorra230 V50 HzC / F
Angola220 V50 HzC
Anguilla110 V60 HzA / B
Antigua and Barbuda230 V60 HzA / B
Argentina220 V50 HzC / I
Armenia230 V50 HzC / F
Aruba120 V60 HzA / B / F
Australia230 V50 HzI
Austria230 V50 HzC / F
Azerbaijan220 V50 HzC / F
Azores230 V50 HzB / C / F
Bahamas120 V60 HzA / B
Bahrain230 V50 HzG
Balearic Islands230 V50 HzC / F
Bangladesh220 V50 HzA / C / D / G / K
Barbados115 V50 HzA / B
Belarus220 V50 HzC / F
Belgium230 V50 HzC / E
Belize110 V / 220 V60 HzA / B / G
Benin220 V50 HzC / E
Bermuda120 V60 HzA / B
Bhutan230 V50 HzC / D / G
Bolivia230 V50 HzA / C
Bonaire127 V50 HzA / C
Bosnia & Herzegovina230 V50 HzC / F
Botswana230 V50 HzD / G
Brazil127 V / 220 V60 HzC / N
British Virgin Islands110 V60 HzA / B
Brunei240 V50 HzG
Bulgaria230 V50 HzC / F
Burkina Faso220 V50 HzC / E
Burma (officially Myanmar)230 V50 HzA / C / D / G / I
Burundi220 V50 HzC / E
Cambodia230 V50 HzA / C / G
Cameroon220 V50 HzC / E
Canada120 V60 HzA / B
Canary Islands230 V50 HzC / E / F
Cape VerdeÊ(in Portuguese: Cabo Verde)230 V50 HzC / F
Cayman Islands120 V60 HzA / B
Central African Republic220 V50 HzC / E
Chad220 V50 HzC / D / E / F
Channel Islands (Guernsey & Jersey)230 V50 HzC / G
Chile220 V50 HzC / L
China, PeopleÕs Republic of220 V50 HzA / C / I
Christmas Island230 V50 HzI
Cocos (Keeling) Islands230 V50 HzI
Colombia110 V60 HzA / B
Comoros220 V50 HzC / E
Congo, Democratic Republic of the (Congo-Kinshasa)220 V50 HzC / D / E
Congo, Republic of the (Congo-Brazzaville)230 V50 HzC / E
Cook Islands240 V50 HzI
Costa Rica120 V60 HzA / B
C™te dÕIvoire (Ivory Coast)220 V50 HzC / E
Croatia230 V50 HzC / F
Cuba110 V / 220 V60 HzA / B / C / L
Curaao127 V50 HzA / B
Cyprus230 V50 HzG
Cyprus, North (unrecognised, self-declared state)230 V50 HzG
Czechia (Czech Republic)230 V50 HzC / E
Denmark230 V50 HzC / E / F / K
Djibouti220 V50 HzC / E
Dominica230 V50 HzD / G
Dominican Republic120 V60 HzA / B / C
Dubai (not a country, but the largest city in the United Arab Emirates)230 V50 HzG
East Timor (Timor-Leste)220 V50 HzC / E / F / I
Ecuador120 V60 HzA / B
Egypt220 V50 HzC / F
El Salvador120 V60 HzA / B
England230 V50 HzG
Equatorial Guinea220 V50 HzC / E
Eritrea230 V50 HzC / L
Estonia230 V50 HzC / F
Ethiopia220 V50 HzC / F / G
Faeroe Islands230 V50 HzC / E / F / K
Falkland Islands240 V50 HzG
Fiji240 V50 HzI
Finland230 V50 HzC / F
France230 V50 HzC / E
French Guiana220 V50 HzC / D / E
Gabon (Gabonese Republic)220 V50 HzC
Gambia230 V50 HzG
Gaza Strip (Gaza)230 V50 HzC / H
Georgia220 V50 HzC / F
Germany230 V50 HzC / F
Ghana230 V50 HzD / G
Gibraltar230 V50 HzG
Great Britain (GB)230 V50 HzG
Greece230 V50 HzC / F
Greenland230 V50 HzC / E / F / K
Grenada230 V50 HzG
Guadeloupe230 V50 HzC / E
Guam110 V60 HzA / B
Guatemala120 V60 HzA / B
Guinea220 V50 HzC / F / K
Guinea-Bissau220 V50 HzC
Guyana120 V / 240 V60 HzA / B / D / G
Haiti110 V60 HzA / B
Holland (officially the Netherlands)230 V50 HzC / F
Honduras120 V60 HzA / B
Hong Kong220 V50 HzG
Hungary230 V50 HzC / F
Iceland230 V50 HzC / F
India230 V50 HzC / D / M
Indonesia230 V50 HzC / F
Iran230 V50 HzC / F
Iraq230 V50 HzC / D / G
Ireland (Eire)230 V50 HzG
Ireland, Northern230 V50 HzG
Isle of Man230 V50 HzC / G
Israel230 V50 HzC / H
Italy230 V50 HzC / F / L
Jamaica110 V50 HzA / B
Japan100 V50 Hz / 60 HzA / B
Jordan230 V50 HzC / D / F / G / J
Kazakhstan220 V50 HzC / F
Kenya240 V50 HzG
Kiribati240 V50 HzI
Korea, North220 V50 HzC
Korea, South220 V60 HzF
Kosovo230 V50 HzC / F
Kuwait240 V50 HzG
Kyrgyzstan220 V50 HzC / F
Laos230 V50 HzA / B / C / E / F
Latvia230 V50 HzC / F
Lebanon230 V50 HzC / D / G
Lesotho220 V50 HzM
Liberia120 V / 220 V60 HzA / B / C / F
Libya230 V50 HzC / L
Liechtenstein230 V50 HzC / J
Lithuania230 V50 HzC / F
Luxembourg230 V50 HzC / F
Macau220 V50 HzG
Macedonia, North230 V50 HzC / F
Madagascar220 V50 HzC / E
Madeira230 V50 HzC / F
Malawi230 V50 HzG
Malaysia240 V50 HzG
Maldives230 V50 HzC / D / G / J / K / L
Mali220 V50 HzC / E
Malta230 V50 HzG
Marshall Islands120 V60 HzA / B
Martinique220 V50 HzC / D / E
Mauritania220 V50 HzC
Mauritius230 V50 HzC / G
Mayotte230 V50 HzC / E
Mexico120 V60 HzA / B
Micronesia, Federated States of120 V60 HzA / B
Moldova230 V50 HzC / F
Monaco230 V50 HzC / E / F
Mongolia230 V50 HzC / E
Montenegro230 V50 HzC / F
Montserrat230 V60 HzA / B
Morocco220 V50 HzC / E
Mozambique220 V50 HzC / F / M
Myanmar (formerly Burma)230 V50 HzA / C / D / G / I
Namibia220 V50 HzD / M
Nauru240 V50 HzI
Nepal230 V50 HzC / D / M
Netherlands230 V50 HzC / F
New Caledonia220 V50 HzC / F
New Zealand230 V50 HzI
Nicaragua120 V60 HzA / B
Niger220 V50 HzC / D / E / F
Nigeria230 V50 HzD / G
Niue230 V50 HzI
Norfolk Island230 V50 HzI
North Cyprus (unrecognised, self-declared state)230 V50 HzG
Northern Ireland230 V50 HzG
North Korea220 V50 HzC
North Macedonia230 V50 HzC / F
Norway230 V50 HzC / F
Oman240 V50 HzG
Pakistan230 V50 HzC / D
Palau120 V60 HzA / B
Palestine230 V50 HzC / H
Panama120 V60 HzA / B
Papua New Guinea240 V50 HzI
Paraguay220 V50 HzC
Peru220 V60 HzA / B / C
Philippines220 V60 HzA / B / C
Pitcairn Islands230 V50 HzI
Poland230 V50 HzC / E
Portugal230 V50 HzC / F
Puerto Rico120 V60 HzA / B
Qatar240 V50 HzG
RŽunion230 V50 HzC / E
Romania230 V50 HzC / F
Russia (officially the Russian Federation)220 V50 HzC / F
Rwanda230 V50 HzC / E / F / G
Saba110 V60 HzA / B
Saint BarthŽlemy (informally also referred to as Saint BarthÕs or Saint Barts)230 V60 HzC / E
Saint Kitts and Nevis (officially the Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis)230 V60 HzD / G
Saint Lucia230 V50 HzG
Saint Martin220 V60 HzC / E
Saint Helena230 V50 HzG
Sint Eustatius110 V / 220 V60 HzA / B / C / F
Sint Maarten110 V60 HzA / B
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines110 V / 230 V50 HzA / B / G
Samoa230 V50 HzI
San Marino230 V50 HzC / F / L
S‹o TomŽ and Pr’ncipe230 V50 HzC / F
Saudi Arabia220 V60 HzG
Scotland230 V50 HzG
Senegal230 V50 HzC / D / E / K
Serbia230 V50 HzC / F
Seychelles240 V50 HzG
Sierra Leone230 V50 HzD / G
Singapore230 V50 HzG
Slovakia230 V50 HzC / E
Slovenia230 V50 HzC / F
Solomon Islands230 V50 HzG / I
Somalia220 V50 HzG
Somaliland (unrecognised, self-declared state)220 V50 HzG
South Africa230 V50 HzC / M / N (still rare)
South Korea220 V60 HzF
South Sudan230 V50 HzC / D
Spain230 V50 HzC / F
Sri Lanka230 V50 HzD / G
Sudan230 V50 HzC / D
Suriname127 V / 220 V60 HzA / B / C / F
Swaziland230 V50 HzM
Sweden230 V50 HzC / F
Switzerland230 V50 HzC / J
Syria220 V50 HzC / E / L
Tahiti220 V50 Hz / 60 HzC / E
Taiwan110 V60 HzA / B
Tajikistan220 V50 HzC / F
Tanzania230 V50 HzD / G
Thailand230 V50 HzA / B / C / O
Togo220 V50 HzC
Tokelau230 V50 HzI
Tonga240 V50 HzI
Trinidad & Tobago115 V60 HzA / B
Tunisia230 V50 HzC / E
Turkey230 V50 HzC / F
Turkmenistan220 V50 HzC / F
Turks and Caicos Islands120 V60 HzA / B
Tuvalu230 V50 HzI
Uganda240 V50 HzG
Ukraine230 V50 HzC / F
United Arab Emirates (UAE)230 V50 HzG
United Kingdom (UK)230 V50 HzG
United States of America (USA)120 V60 HzA / B
United States Virgin Islands110 V60 HzA / B
Uruguay220 V50 HzC / F / L
Uzbekistan220 V50 HzC / F
Vanuatu230 V50 HzI
Vatican City230 V50 HzC / F / L
Venezuela120 V60 HzA / B
Vietnam220 V50 HzA / B / C
Virgin Islands (British)110 V60 HzA / B
Virgin Islands (USA)110 V60 HzA / B
Wales230 V50 HzG
Western Sahara220 V50 HzC / E
Yemen230 V50 HzA / D / G
Zambia230 V50 HzC / D / G
Zimbabwe240 V50 HzD / G


Enjoy your trip!